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Breakthroughs in the ability to probe and better understand biologic systems during the past 30 years1-3 have enabled the medical community to build up new restorative agents and change the course of many life-shortening diseases. 4, 5 Despite this success, bridging the gap between promising laboratory observations and the development of effective therapies remains risky and expensive, with fewer than 1 in 10, 000 early translational programs effectively attaining Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, at a cost of almost $1 billion. 6 The majority of therapeutic development fails in the preclinical phase, which is sometimes described as the "valley of dying. "7
For this reason and because therapies for some conditions will have a small eventual market value, the pharmaceutical industry has been not wanting to initiate early-stage programs to deal with so-called orphan diseases. In recognition of a critical need, federal firms have developed programs to catalyze innovation and minimize obstacles to early advancement new therapies. 8 In the past two decades, disease-focused foundations also have developed a new method to bridging this preclinical gap. Inside a process known as venture philanthropy, such foundations have formed partnerships with industry and federal government agencies to share the financial risk of therapeutic development, shorten the early translational pipeline, and advance research with "a give attention to human, not financial, return. "9 In addition, foundations and their academic partners have accelerated early development by providing access to patient populations for clinical trials and assistance from disease-specific experts in study design, which has helped in bridging the gap in therapeutic development.
In this review, we will give attention to about three diseases -- cystic fibrosis, multiple myeloma, and type 1 diabetes mellitus -- to illustrate how aide among academic institutions, fundamentals, and industry partners have evolved to address the therapeutic challenges of these conditions.
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
Inside 1989, the discovery of the gene that leads to cystic fibrosis and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein10, 11 greatly increased interest within the scientific community in this life-shortening genetic disease, which influences approximately 75, 000 patients worldwide. Together with support from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), researchers swiftly expanded knowledge about the biogenesis, maturation, and perform of CFTR, a governed epithelial anion channel12; such knowledge provided the necessary scientific framework for the development of therapeutic targets. In addition, an international consortium13 recognized more than 1700 mutations and described genotype-phenotype correlations with standard case definitions, 14 which enabled a precision-medicine approach to therapeutic development. Within the 1990s, attempts were made to treat cystic fibrosis by gene-replacement remedy provided to airway epithelia. Even though early in vitro15 and in vivo studies16 provided proof of concept, many barriers, including a robust host immune response, were encountered. 17 These barriers ended such initial clinical development programs.
In the decade following your discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene, scientific knowledge expanded but did not bring about a remedy that corrected CFTR function. In 1999, the CFF launched the Therapeutic Development Program (TDP) to attract both academic and industry partners and also to commence high-throughput screening for CFTR modulators. 18, 19 The CFF embraced the concept of venture philanthropy9, 20 to raise the interest of industry in an orphan disease. However, the success of the TDP was centered on a lot more than financial support. 21 The program created a cultural move that allowed the CFF, academic clinicians and experts, federal agencies (the NIH and FDA), and industry to create a strong partnership with common goals and timelines.

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2016 3.375 60.645
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2012 10 24.199
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2002 68 500